As of October, 2016, Embarcadero is offering a free release
of Delphi (Delphi
10.1 Berlin Starter Edition ). There
are a few restrictions, but it is a welcome step toward making
more programmers aware of the joys of Delphi. They do say
"Offer may be withdrawn at any time", so don't delay if you want
to check it out. Please use the
link to let me know if the link stops working.
Support DFF - Shop
If you shop at Amazon anyway, consider using
this link. We receive a few cents from each purchase.
Support DFF - Donate
If you benefit from the website, in terms of
knowledge, entertainment value, or something otherwise useful,
consider making a donation via PayPal to help defray the
costs. (No PayPal account necessary to donate via credit
card.) Transaction is secure.
e-mail with your comments about this program (or anything else).
Write a simulation of the solitaire card game, "Roll-Call",
in order to determine the probability of
Background & Techniques
Kevin S. is a long time player of this game but has never beaten
it. In his research on the game, he ran across a statement that the
probability of winning had never been calculated. He was wondering
if he had a chance of ever winning, so, not being smart enough to answer
the question analytically, I wrote this simulation.
Here are rules for the game (from the
problem description for a recent ACM programming
One very simple type of solitaire game known as “Hit or Miss” (also
known as “Frustration,” “Harvest,” “Roll-Call,”
“Talkative”, and “Treize”) is played as follows: take a standard
deck of 52 playing cards — four sets of cards numbered 1 through 13
(suits do not matter in this game) which have been shuffled — and start
counting through the deck 1, 2, 3, . . . , and so on. When your count
reaches 13, start over at 1. Each time you count, look at the top card of
the deck and do one of two things: if the number you count matches the
value of the top card, discard it from the deck; if it does not match it,
move that card to the bottom of the deck. You win the game if you are able
to remove all cards from the deck (which may take a very long time).
There are a couple of more restrictive versions.
Kevin plays the one that allows play until you cycle through the non-matching
deck three times in a row without matching any card. Another version
allows only two consecutive non-matching cycles through the
deck. In these versions one would probably play each card
turned onto "matched" and "not matched" piles and
recycle the "not matched" deck.
All three versions are simulated by this program. The program
assumes that the "Not-match" pile is built face up, and the
turned face down for the next cycle. I.E. the cards are
processed in the same relative order each time through.
Building the "not-matched" deck face down and not turning
it over for the next cycle would result in reversing the order that
cards are seen for each pass. I haven't checked whether
this would affect the outcome, but it would seem unlikely that the
statistical results would change change although results for any
particular starting deck probably would.
We'll leave that for "Further Explorations".
The first hundred winning games are saved and can be played back by
clicking on the deck arrangement display for any game. A second
window then displays each card turned and the result (matched or not
matched) for each pass through the deck.
Non-programmers are welcome to read on, but may
want to skip to the bottom of this page to
download executable version of the program.
Notes for programmers
The simulation runs in a loop for the number of games selected.
Each game does this:
|Fill an 52 element integer array with the numbers 1 to13, repeated 4
|"Shuffle" the deck 3 times. My shuffle technique is
to sequentially swap integers from 52 down to 1 with one randomly
selected from the entries preceding it; . e.g. card 52 is
swapped with a card selected randomly from the first 51, card 51 is
swapped with a random card from the first 50, etc. |
|Play the game. For details, the actual code
describes the process as well as words:|
|Increment won and lost counters based on whether all cards were
matched before we had 2, 3, or 13 (depending on version being
played) consecutive cycles through the cards without a match.|
The first 100 winning decks are saved in a SaveDeck array. After
the specified number of games have been played and summary stats
displayed, the winning decks are displayed in a separate Tmemo,
Memo4. An OnClick exit for Memo4 determines which game
was clicked and that game is "replayed" with each card turn
displayed in Memo3. Both Memo3 and Memo4 are hidden behind Memo1,
which is made invisible (Visible:=false) after each set of games has been
For future reference, the best technique I've found for scrolling
a Tmemo display back to the top is to send an EM_LINESCROLL message
with a negative line count. Like this sample: with memo3 do Perform(EM_LineScroll,0,-Lines.Count);
The program uses a module, DFFUtils, which resides in the DFF Library
file, a collection of units used in multiple programs. Recompiling
Roll_Call will require a one-time download of DFFLIBV04 or later.
Addendum January 28, 2008: Three
years after writing this program, Kevin is still playing with it and
recently wrote asking if "zero strike" games were possible.
Obviously a deck that has all cards in order would produce a zero-strike
win in one pass, but are there other arrangements? The
answer is yes, and Version 2 posted today will find them.
Clearly any zero-strike game cannot be longer than 52 passes through he
deck, removing one card each time. I don't think so, but then the
question becomes "What is longest zero-strike game?"
So far the range is 17 to 26 passes. If you
find out, let me know!
Running/Exploring the Program
Suggestions for Further Explorations
Does the order in which the
"not-matched" deck is processed affect results? As
mentioned earlier, the order of processing can easily be reversed for each
cycle by not turning the deck over between
passes. What if the deck could be shuffled between
I have assumed, but not proven, that if you
go through the non -matching deck 13 times without matching a card, you
never will. Prove or disprove this assumption.
|Original Date: November 13, 2005
February 18, 2016